Any conditions involving the colon and rectum fall under colorectal diseases. Conditions may be mild, easily treatable via medications and lifestyle modifications; or severe, requiring surgery.
Colorectal surgery may be done open or laparoscopically, the latter being the preferred choice because of its minimally invasive nature and fewer risks involved. This procedure, which is also known as keyhole surgery, does away with the single, 6- to 12-inch large incision associated with open surgery.
Instead, it accesses and treats the colorectal region via small incisions in the abdomen through which a laparoscope and tiny surgical tools are inserted. A laparoscope is an optical instrument equipped with a light and camera, which allows the doctor to examine the abdominal organs from outside the body via a monitor. Air may also be pumped into the colon to inflate the abdominal walls, providing a better view and access to the area.